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1934 Limited admission of refugees
Valkenburgerstraat 186, Amsterdam
Jewish neighbourhood
Valkenburgerstraat 186, Amsterdam
Jewish neighbourhood [+] Enlarge map [-] Reduce map
© Stadsarchief Amsterdam / Vereenigde Fotobureaux N.V.

Joop Zoutberg - De Haan factory in the Valkenburgerstraat makes matzos for Passover

Passover is Jewish Easter whereby the flight of the Jews from Egypt is remembered. During this eight-day celebration leavened and fermented food is unclean. It may not be eaten and not even allowed in the home. Bread is one of these forbidden foods. It is for this reason that matzos, a sort of unleavened bread that is similar to crackers, are an essential part of Passover.

Matzos factory De Haan is an ordinary bakery, but from December to April it is one of the most important matzo producers in the Netherlands. During the rest of the year it bakes ordinary toast and crackers.

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Joop Zoutberg

Joop Zoutberg is not Jewish, but lives with his family in the Jewish neighborhood. His father works in the Matzo factory and Joop feels at home in the Jewish community. After the introduction of the Jewish star the raids start. Joop looks on and sees how his friends and neighbours are eventually all taken away.

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1938 Many Jewish refugees after Kristallnacht

Many Jewish refugees flee to the Netherlands after Kristallnacht. Princess Juliana also feels connected to the Jewish community. But while more attention is drawn to the admittance of more Jews, NSB members threaten more intervention.

1940 Amsterdam occupied

Nothing changes too much for the Frank family in the beginning. Opekta moves to the Prinsengracht. During air raids bombs cause death and injury in Amsterdam.

1940  Amsterdam occupied

1941 Jews allowed to do and less

It starts with a cinema ban but rapidly Jews are banned from virtually all public places. Jewish children must attend separate schools. This also applies to Anne and Margot Frank.

1941  Jews allowed to do and less

1942 It becomes more dangerous for Jews

On her thirteenth birthday Anne Frank receives a diary. A few days later she writes about the situation in Amsterdam. The introduction of the Jewish star and the raids. In July the Frank family goes into hiding.

1942  It becomes more dangerous for Jews

1943 Deportations and attacks

While the Frank family is in hiding thousands of Jews are deported from Amsterdam. The resistance tries to hinder the deportations by attacks including one on the Public Registry. It doesn’t stop them.

1943  Deportations and attacks

1944 Discovered and arrested

On 4 August the people in hiding in the secret annex are discovered and arrested. From Westerbork they are taken to Auschwitz. When the Allies land in the south of the Netherlands there is hope that the country will be liberated. German soldiers and NSB members flee the country after Dolle Dinsdag (‘Mad Tuesday’).

1944  Discovered and arrested

1945 Joy and sadness

A celebration at the Dam on 7 May is ruined when people are killed after German soldiers shoot at the crowd. On 8 May Amsterdam is officially liberated. Otto Frank returns. He knows that Edith is dead. He only hears later that his two daughters have not survived.

1945  Joy and sadness

1946 Slowly the threads are picked up again

On 3 May 1946 the first official commemoration for those who died during the war is held. Anne Frank’s diary is published on 25 June 1947. Life in Amsterdam slowly gets back to normal. Of the 70,000 Jews who lived in the city in 1940 only 10,000 have survived the war.

1950 Lasting memory

Even five years after the liberation the reverberations from the war are still clearly noticeable. The Jewish community thanks Amsterdam for the help given to Jews with a monument.

1950  Lasting memory
  • 1950
  • To those who protected the Dutch Jews during the years of the occupation. Protected by your love. Encouraged by your resistance. Mourning with you.

    Part of the citation on the monument ‘Jewish Gratitude’
  • picture:Once a year, two minutes silence

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