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1943 Deportations and attacks
Pretoriusstraat 78
Transvaalbuurt neighbourhood
Pretoriusstraat 78
Transvaalbuurt neighbourhood [+] Enlarge map [-] Reduce map
Uit: Oorlogsgetuigen : 8 filmportretten door Pieter Fleury (1989)

Ted Musaph - ‘The neighborhood is completely cut off’

In April 1943 Ted Musaph and her family are forced by the Germans to move to a house in the Transvaal neighbourhood of Amsterdam. They are allocated a house in the Pretoriusstraat, number 78.

From 1942 all Jews living outside Amsterdam were forced to move to the city. Many houses where Jews had lived in Amsterdam were empty, because the occupants had been picked up in raids. This way the Nazi occupier could deport the majority of Dutch Jews via the Hollandsche Schouwburg (Dutch Theatre) in Amsterdam.

 

Source: Extract from Oorlogsgetuigen: 8 filmportretten door Pieter Fleury

 

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Ted Musaph

Ted Musaph is fifteen years old when she and her family are forced to move on 19 April 1943 to Amsterdam from Utrecht. In June 1943 her family is picked up during a raid. Ted hides under the hall in her home. She then goes into hiding but is betrayed and taken to the Hollandsche Schouwburg (Dutch Theatre). The resistance helps her to escape, but she is alone, without money or papers. So she gets on a train to join her family in Westerbork. In 1944 she is deported with her family to Bergen-Belsen. Her father dies there. Ted, her mother, brother and sister survive.

More about this person

1938 Many Jewish refugees after Kristallnacht

Many Jewish refugees flee to the Netherlands after Kristallnacht. Princess Juliana also feels connected to the Jewish community. But while more attention is drawn to the admittance of more Jews, NSB members threaten more intervention.

1940 Amsterdam occupied

Nothing changes too much for the Frank family in the beginning. Opekta moves to the Prinsengracht. During air raids bombs cause death and injury in Amsterdam.

1940  Amsterdam occupied

1941 Jews allowed to do and less

It starts with a cinema ban but rapidly Jews are banned from virtually all public places. Jewish children must attend separate schools. This also applies to Anne and Margot Frank.

1941  Jews allowed to do and less

1942 It becomes more dangerous for Jews

On her thirteenth birthday Anne Frank receives a diary. A few days later she writes about the situation in Amsterdam. The introduction of the Jewish star and the raids. In July the Frank family goes into hiding.

1942  It becomes more dangerous for Jews

1943 Deportations and attacks

While the Frank family is in hiding thousands of Jews are deported from Amsterdam. The resistance tries to hinder the deportations by attacks including one on the Public Registry. It doesn’t stop them.

1943  Deportations and attacks

1944 Discovered and arrested

On 4 August the people in hiding in the secret annex are discovered and arrested. From Westerbork they are taken to Auschwitz. When the Allies land in the south of the Netherlands there is hope that the country will be liberated. German soldiers and NSB members flee the country after Dolle Dinsdag (‘Mad Tuesday’).

1944  Discovered and arrested

1945 Joy and sadness

A celebration at the Dam on 7 May is ruined when people are killed after German soldiers shoot at the crowd. On 8 May Amsterdam is officially liberated. Otto Frank returns. He knows that Edith is dead. He only hears later that his two daughters have not survived.

1945  Joy and sadness

1946 Slowly the threads are picked up again

On 3 May 1946 the first official commemoration for those who died during the war is held. Anne Frank’s diary is published on 25 June 1947. Life in Amsterdam slowly gets back to normal. Of the 70,000 Jews who lived in the city in 1940 only 10,000 have survived the war.

1950 Lasting memory

Even five years after the liberation the reverberations from the war are still clearly noticeable. The Jewish community thanks Amsterdam for the help given to Jews with a monument.

1950  Lasting memory
  • 1950
  • To those who protected the Dutch Jews during the years of the occupation. Protected by your love. Encouraged by your resistance. Mourning with you.

    Part of the citation on the monument ‘Jewish Gratitude’
  • picture:Once a year, two minutes silence

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View the most important places with their story from Anne Frank’s Amsterdam. Click to the Timeline and see how Amsterdam changed from being a safe haven in 1933 to an occupied city. Zoom in by clicking on the plus sign on the left. This way you can click more easily on the places on the map